The following log files can be found from SCCM 2012 log folder location. I have taken MS link as reference for these log files:
CAS.log : Content Access service. Maintains the local package cache on the client.
Ccm32BitLauncher.log : Records actions for starting applications on the client marked as "run as 32bit".
CcmEval.log : Records Configuration Manager client status evaluation activities and details for components that are required by the Configuration Manager client.
CcmEvalTask.log : Records the Configuration Manager client status evaluation activities that are initiated by the evaluation scheduled task.
CcmExec.log : Records activities of the client and the SMS Agent Host service.
Ccmperf.log : Records activities related to the maintenance and capture of data related to client performance counters.
CcmRestart.log : Records client service restart activity.
CCMSDKProvider.log : Records activities for the client SDK interfaces.
CertificateMaintenance.log : Maintains certificates for Active Directory Domain Services and management points.
CIDownloader.log : Records details about configuration item definition downloads.
CITaskMgr.log : Records tasks that are initiated for each application and deployment type, such as content download or install or uninstall actions.
ClientAuth.log : Records the signing and authentication activity for the client.
ClientIDManagerStartup.log : Creates and maintains the client GUID and identifies tasks performed during client registration and assignment.
ClientLocation.log : Records tasks that are related to client site assignment.
CMHttpsReadiness.log :Records the results of running the Configuration Manager HTTPS Readiness Assessment Tool. This tool checks whether computers have a PKI client authentication certificate that can be used for Configuration Manager.
CmRcService.log : Records information for the remote control service.
ContentTransferManager.log : Schedules the Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) or the Server Message Block (SMB) to download or to access packages.
DataTransferService.log : Records all BITS communication for policy or package access.
EndpointProtectionAgent : Records information about the installation of the Endpoint Protection client and the application of antimalware policy to that client.
execmgr.log : Records details about packages and task sequences that run on the client.
ExpressionSolver.log : Records details about enhanced detection methods that are used when verbose or debug logging is enabled.
FileBITS.log : Records all SMB package access tasks.
FileSystemFile.log : Records the activity of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) provider for software inventory and file collection.
FSPStateMessage.log : Records the activity for state messages that are sent to the fallback status point by the client.
InternetProxy.log : Records the network proxy configuration and usage activity for the client.
InventoryAgent.log : Records activities of hardware inventory, software inventory, and heartbeat discovery actions on the client.
LocationCache.log : Records the activity for location cache usage and maintenance for the client.
LocationServices.log : Records the client activity for locating management points, software update points, and distribution points.
MaintenanceCoordinator.log : Records the activity for general maintenance task activity for the client.
Mifprovider.log : Records the activity of the WMI provider for .MIF files.
mtrmgr.log : Monitors all software metering processes.
PolicyAgent.log : Records requests for policies made by using the Data Transfer service.
PolicyAgentProvider.log : Records policy changes.
PolicyEvaluator.log : Records details about the evaluation of policies on client computers, including policies from software updates.
PolicyPlatformClient.log : Records the process of remediation and compliance for all providers located in %Program Files%\Microsoft Policy Platform, except the file provider.
PolicySdk.log : Records activities for policy system SDK interfaces.
PwrProvider.log : Records the activities of the power management provider (PWRInvProvider) hosted in the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) service. On all supported versions of Windows, the provider enumerates the current settings on computers during hardware inventory and applies power plan settings.
RemoteControl.log : Records the activities of remote control.
SCClient_<domain>@<username>_1.log : Records the activity in Software Center for the specified user on the client computer.
SCClient_<domain>@<username>_2.log : Records the historical activity in Software Center for the specified user on the client computer.
Scheduler.log : Records activities of scheduled tasks for all client operations.
SCNotify_<domain>@<username>_1.log : Records the activity for notifying users about software for the specified user.
SCNotify_<domain>@<username>_1-<date_time>.log : Records the historical information for notifying users about software for the specified user.
setuppolicyevaluator.log : Records configuration and inventory policy creation in WMI.
smscliui.log : Records usage of the Configuration Manager client in Control Panel.
SrcUpdateMgr.log : Records activity for installed Windows Installer applications that are updated with current distribution point source locations.
StatusAgent.log : Records status messages that are created by the client components.
SWMTRReportGen.log : Generates a usage data report that is collected by the metering agent. This data is logged in Mtrmgr.log.
UserAffinity.log : Records details about user device affinity.
VirtualApp.log : Records information specific to the evaluation of App-V deployment types.
The following table lists the log files that contain information related to the installation of the Configuration Manager client.
ccmsetup.log : Records ccmsetup tasks for client setup, client health and remediation, client upgrade, and client removal. Can be used to troubleshoot client installation problems.
CcmRepair.log : Records the repair activities of the client agent.
client.msi.log : Records setup tasks performed by client.msi. Can be used to troubleshoot client installation or removal problems.